Monoclonal antibody-induced cytokine-release syndrome

Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2009 Sep;5(5):499-521. doi: 10.1586/eci.09.31.


Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are widely used in anti-inflammatory and tumor therapy. Although effective, mAbs can cause a variety of adverse effects. An important toxicity seen with a few mAbs is cytokine-release syndrome (CRS). These mAbs include: alemtuzumab, muromonab-CD3, rituximab, tosituzumab, CP-870,893, LO-CD2a/BTI-322 and TGN1412. By contrast, over 30 mAbs used clinically are not associated with CRS. In this review, the clinical aspects of CRS, the mAbs associated with CRS, the cytokines involved and putative mechanisms mediating cytokine release will be discussed. This will be followed by a discussion of the poor predictive value of studies in animals and the prospects for creating in vitro screens. Finally, approaches to decreasing the probability of CRS, decreasing the severity or treating CRS, should it occur, will be described.