Laryngeal findings and acoustic changes in hubble-bubble smokers

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2010 Oct;267(10):1587-92. doi: 10.1007/s00405-010-1273-4. Epub 2010 May 18.


The purpose of our investigation was to evaluate the laryngeal findings and acoustic changes in hubble-bubble smokers. A total of 42 subjects with history of hubble-bubble smoking were recruited for this study. A corresponding group with a history of cigarette smoking and controls were matched. All subjects underwent laryngeal video-endostroboscopic evaluation and acoustic analysis. In the hubble-bubble smoking group, 61.9% were males. The average age was 30.02 +/- 9.48 years and the average number of years of smoking was 8.09 +/- 6.45 years. Three subjects had dysphonia at the time of examination. The incidence of benign lesions of the vocal folds in the hubble-bubble group was 21.5%, with edema being the most common at 16.7% followed by cyst at 4.8%. The incidence of laryngeal findings was significantly higher in the hubble-bubble group compared to controls. In the cigarette-smoking group, the most common finding was vocal fold cyst in 14.8% followed by polyps in 7.4%, and edema, sulcus vocalis and granuloma. These findings were not significantly different from the hubble-bubble group except for the thick mucus, which was significantly higher in the latter. There were no significant changes in any of the acoustic parameters between hubble-bubble smokers and controls except for the VTI and MPT, which were significantly lower in the hubble-bubble group. In comparison with the cigarette-smoking group, hubble-bubble smokers had significantly higher Fundamental frequency and habitual pitch (p value 0.042 and 0.008, respectively). The laryngeal findings in hubble-bubble smokers are comparable to cigarette smokers. These laryngeal findings are not translated acoustically, as all the acoustic parameters are within normal range compared to controls.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aerosols / adverse effects
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Laryngeal Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Laryngeal Diseases / pathology
  • Laryngeal Diseases / physiopathology
  • Larynx / pathology*
  • Larynx / physiopathology*
  • Male
  • Smoking / adverse effects*
  • Speech Acoustics*
  • Stroboscopy
  • Voice Quality*
  • Young Adult


  • Aerosols