Purpose: The diagnosis of tuberculosis as an etiological factor in patients with uveitis is difficult because of lack of specific diagnostic tests. The authors report 2 cases of occlusive retinal vasculitis, in which (18)F-FDG-PET/CT was helpful for the diagnosis of tuberculosis as a presumptive cause of intraocular inflammation.
Methods: In 2 patients with severe occlusive retinal vasculitis and positive QuantiFERON TB-Gold test, (18)F-FDG-PET/CT, transbronchial needle-aspiration biopsy, and microbiological investigation were performed.
Results: (18)F-FDG-PET/CT showed increased fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in some mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes. After needle-aspiration biopsy of PET-positive lymph nodes, M. tuberculosis was recovered in culture in both cases. Remission of uveitis was achieved only after a combination therapy with 3 anti-tubercular agents and systemic steroids.
Conclusion: The authors favor the use of (18)F-FDG-PET/CT in patients with sight-threatening intraocular inflammation and positive interferon-gamma release assay. Anti-tubercular therapy, together with anti-inflammatory treatment, may lead to a remission in such patients.