In plants, many of the innate immune receptors or disease resistance (R) proteins contain a NB-LRR (Nucleotide-binding site, Leucine-rich repeat) structure. The recent findings regarding NB-LRR signaling are summarized in this article. An emerging theme is that two NB-LRRs can function together to mediate disease resistance against pathogen isolates. Also, recent results delineate the NB-LRR protein fragments that are sufficient to initiate defense signaling. Importantly, distinct fragments of different NB-LRRs are sufficient for function. Finally, we describe the new roles of accessory proteins and downstream host genes in NB-LRR signaling.
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