Autoimmunity at the ocular surface: pathogenesis and regulation

Mucosal Immunol. 2010 Sep;3(5):425-42. doi: 10.1038/mi.2010.26. Epub 2010 May 19.


A healthy ocular surface environment is essential to preserve visual function, and as such the eye has evolved a complex network of mechanisms to maintain homeostasis. Fundamental to the health of the ocular surface is the immune system, designed to respond rapidly to environmental and microbial insults, whereas maintaining tolerance to self-antigens and commensal microbes. To this end, activation of the innate and adaptive immune response is tightly regulated to limit bystander tissue damage. However, aberrant activation of the immune system can result in autoimmunity to self-antigens localized to the ocular surface and associated tissues. Environmental, microbial and endogenous stress, antigen localization, and genetic factors provide the triggers underlying the immunological events that shape the outcome of the diverse spectrum of autoimmune-based ocular surface disorders.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antigen Presentation
  • Autoantigens / immunology*
  • Autoantigens / metabolism
  • Autoimmune Diseases / drug therapy
  • Autoimmune Diseases / etiology*
  • Autoimmune Diseases / physiopathology
  • Eye / immunology
  • Eye / metabolism*
  • Eye / pathology
  • Eye Diseases / drug therapy
  • Eye Diseases / etiology*
  • Eye Diseases / physiopathology
  • Homeostasis
  • Humans
  • Immunotherapy*
  • Infections / complications*
  • Infections / drug therapy
  • Infections / physiopathology
  • Inflammation
  • Lymphocyte Activation / genetics
  • Polymorphism, Genetic
  • Receptors, Cytokine / genetics


  • Autoantigens
  • Receptors, Cytokine