Recent developments in molecular therapies for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) demand accurate genetic diagnosis, because therapies are mutation specific. The KUCG (Kobe University Clinical Genetics) database for DMD and Becker muscular dystrophy is a hospital-based database comprising 442 cases. Using a combination of complementary DNA (cDNA) and chromosome analysis in addition to conventional genomic DNA-based method, mutation detection was successfully accomplished in all cases, and the largest mutation database of Japanese dystrophinopathy was established. Among 442 cases, deletions and duplications encompassing one or more exons were identified in 270 (61%) and 38 (9%) cases, respectively. Nucleotide changes leading to nonsense mutations or disrupting a splice site were identified in 69 (16%) or 24 (5%) cases, respectively. Small deletion/insertion mutations were identified in 34 (8%) cases. Remarkably, two retrotransposon insertion events were also identified. Dystrophin cDNA analysis successfully revealed novel transcripts with a pseudoexon created by a single-nucleotide change deep within an intron in four cases. X-chromosome abnormalities were identified in two cases. The reading frame rule was upheld for 93% of deletion and 66% of duplication mutation cases. For the application of molecular therapies, induction of exon skipping was deemed the first priority for dystrophinopathy treatment. At one Japanese referral center, the hospital-based mutation database of the dystrophin gene was for the first time established with the highest levels of quality and patient's number.