Osteoporosis is a global health problem characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue with a consequent increase in bone fragility and susceptibility to fracture. Nutrition plays a critical role in reducing the risk of osteoporosis through its effect on all of these fragility factors, especially on the development and maintenance of bone mass. An adequate calcium, vitamin D and protein intake resulted in reduced bone remodeling, better calcium retention, reduced age-related bone loss, and reduced fracture risk. Recent evidence indicates that a healthy dietary pattern including dairy products (mainly fat free), fruit and vegetables and adequate amounts of meat, fish and poultry is positively related to bone health. Furthermore, mineral and vitamin supplementation should be closely monitored by health professionals since it could have adverse effects and be insufficient to ensure optimal protection of bone health.