Objective: The efficacy and safety of blood pressure lowering in elderly patients have not been sufficiently investigated in patients with diabetes. Using data from the Action in Diabetes and Vascular disease: preterAx and diamicroN-MR Controlled Evaluation study, we assessed the efficacy and safety of routine blood pressure lowering to prevent major clinical outcomes in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes.
Methods: Eleven thousand one hundred and forty patients aged at least 55 years with type 2 diabetes (mean 66+/-6 years) were randomly assigned to perindopril-indapamide or placebo. The primary endpoint was a composite of major macrovascular and microvascular disease. The effects of active treatment on outcomes were estimated in subgroups according to age: below 65, 65-74 and at least 75 years.
Results: During a mean 4.3-year follow-up, 1799 (16.1%) patients experienced a major event. Active treatment produced similar relative risk reductions for the primary outcome, major macrovascular disease, death and renal events across age groups (all P heterogeneity >0.3). Over 5 years, active treatment was estimated to prevent one primary outcome in every 21, 71 and 118 patients of at least 75, 65-74 and below 65 years, respectively. Similar patterns of benefits were observed for secondary outcomes. There were no differences in the tolerability between randomized allocations across age groups (all P heterogeneity >0.6)
Conclusion: Routine administration of perindopril-indapamide lowers blood pressure safely and reduces the risk of major clinical outcomes in patients of at least 75 years with type 2 diabetes. The greater absolute benefits in older patients in this age group were not offset by an increased risk of side effects.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00145925.