This prospective study determined whether selected anatomic measures identified women at increased risk of patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) and shin splints (SS). Ten anatomic measures were performed on 748 women before basic training at the Marine Corps Recruit Depot (MCRD), Parris Island, South Carolina. Recruits were then followed throughout basic training for occurrence of injuries. Logistic regression modeling indicated that a left hip internal rotation range of motion (ROM) < or =25 degrees and > or =46 degrees, a right Q angle > or =20 degrees, and left knee hyperextension ROM > or =6 degrees were positively associated with PFPS. Whereas left dorsiflexion ROM > or =21 degrees was associated with SS, right Q angle > or =20 degrees was inversely associated with SS. These findings suggest that multiple anatomic measures can be used to identify women entering MCRD basic training at risk for PFPS and SS injuries.