Partial surgical removal of the stomach (fundectomy, FX) leads to osteopenia in animals and humans. FX adversely affects the bone. 2-oxoglutaric acid is a precursor of glutamine and hydroxyproline--the most abundant amino acid of collagen. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of 2-oxoglutaric acid on FX-evoked osteopenia in pigs. Eighteen castrated male pigs of the Puławska breed were used. Twelve pigs were subjected to FX and divided into two groups: FX + AKG (the AKG group; AKG at the daily dosage of 0.4 g/kg of body weight) and FX + Placebo (the FXC group; received CaCO(3) as placebo). Remaining six pigs were sham-operated (the SHO group). The pigs were euthanized at the age of 8 months and long bones were collected. Area bone mineral density (aBMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) were measured; morphology, geometry and biomechanical properties were determined. Moreover, the serum concentrations of selected hormones and one marker of bone metabolism were determined. FX caused osteopenia in the pigs and treatment with AKG greatly reduced these effects of FX in pigs. Negative effect of fundectomy on the skeletal system leading to decreased bone mass in pigs is associated with lowered body gain and activity of the gastric-hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Better definitions of each of the local and systemic hormonal and structural components associated with fundectomy-induced decreased bone mass that separately and together determine the whole bone properties may lead to identify opportunities for prevention.
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