PD-1/PD-L1 pathway and T-cell exhaustion in chronic hepatitis virus infection

J Viral Hepat. 2010 Jul;17(7):453-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2893.2010.01313.x. Epub 2010 May 10.


Dysfunctional virus-specific T cells are a hallmark of many chronic viral infections. Recent studies have implicated the inhibitory PD-1/PD-L1 pathway with the functional impairment of T cells. In this respect, we will review the latest research on PD-1/PD-L1 pathway and T-cell exhaustion in the context of human chronic hepatitis B and C virus infections. We will also discuss the therapeutic potential of PD-1 blockade and how it may be enhanced through the modulation of other co-stimulatory/inhibitory pathways.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antigens, CD / physiology*
  • Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins / physiology*
  • B7-H1 Antigen
  • Hepatitis B, Chronic / immunology*
  • Hepatitis C, Chronic / immunology*
  • Humans
  • Lymphocyte Depletion*
  • Models, Biological
  • Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor
  • T-Lymphocytes / immunology*


  • Antigens, CD
  • Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins
  • B7-H1 Antigen
  • CD274 protein, human
  • PDCD1 protein, human
  • Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor