Dietary fumonisin exposure in a rural population of South Africa

Food Chem Toxicol. Aug-Sep 2010;48(8-9):2103-8. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2010.05.011. Epub 2010 May 19.


A validated culturally specific dietary assessment method was used to determine the habitual maize intakes of black Xhosa-speaking Africans living in the Centane region of the Eastern Cape Province to assess their exposure to the carcinogenic fumonisin mycotoxins. The mean total dry weight maize intakes of home-grown, commercial or combined (both maize sources) were 474, 344, 462 g day(-1), respectively. When considering the total mean levels of fumonisin in home-grown maize (1142 microg kg(-1)) and commercial maize (222 microg kg(-1)), the probable daily intakes (PDI's), expressed as microg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) were 12.1 (95%CI: 0.3-4926.5) and 1.3 (95%CI: 1.0-1.8) for men and 6.7 (95%CI: 1.0-457.8) and 1.1 (95%CI: 0.9-1.3) for women, consuming home-grown and commercial maize, respectively. Based on the different maize-based beer drinking frequencies the PDI's varied between 6.9 and 12.0 microg kg(-1)/drinking event. Depending on the maize intake patterns an exposure "window" exists where fumonisin exposure is below the recommended group provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) for fumonisins of 2 microg kg(-1)bw day(-1). The assessment of fumonisin exposure and development of preventative strategies depend, not only the accurate determination of total fumonisin levels in maize, but also on the distinct dietary patterns of a specific population.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Beer
  • Cooking
  • Diet Surveys
  • Diet*
  • Female
  • Food Contamination
  • Fumonisins / analysis*
  • Fumonisins / chemistry
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Rural Population
  • South Africa
  • Young Adult
  • Zea mays / microbiology


  • Fumonisins