Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of no-reflow phenomenon on 5-year mortality among patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). This impact was also assessed in relation to infarct size.
Background: The impact of no-reflow on long-term mortality in patients with STEMI has been insufficiently studied.
Methods: This study included 1,406 patients with STEMI treated by primary PCI. No-reflow was diagnosed using angiographic criteria. Infarct size was measured with single-photon emission computed tomography imaging 7 to 14 days after the acute event. The primary outcome was 5-year mortality.
Results: The no-reflow phenomenon was diagnosed in 410 patients (29%). Infarct size was 15.0% (6.0% to 29.0%) of the left ventricle in the no-reflow group versus 8.0% (2.0% to 21.0%) of the left ventricle in the reflow group (p < 0.001). There were 132 deaths during follow-up. Of them, 59 deaths occurred among patients with no-reflow and 73 deaths occurred among patients with reflow (Kaplan-Meier estimates of 5-year mortality 18.2% and 9.5%, respectively; odds ratio: 2.02; 95% confidence interval: 1.44 to 2.82; p < 0.001). The Cox proportional hazards model adjusting for infarct size among other variables identified the no-reflow phenomenon as an independent correlate of 5-year mortality (hazard ratio: 1.66; 95% confidence interval: 1.17 to 2.36; p = 0.004).
Conclusions: In patients with STEMI treated by primary PCI, no-reflow phenomenon is a strong predictor of 5-year mortality. No-reflow phenomenon after PCI provides prognostic information that is independent of and beyond that provided by infarct size.
Copyright (c) 2010 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.