Co-occurrence of victimization from five subtypes of bullying: physical, verbal, social exclusion, spreading rumors, and cyber

J Pediatr Psychol. 2010 Nov;35(10):1103-12. doi: 10.1093/jpepsy/jsq048. Epub 2010 May 20.


Objective: To examine co-occurrence of five subtypes of peer victimization.

Methods: Data were obtained from a national sample of 7,475 US adolescents in grades 6 through 10 in the 2005/2006 Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study. Latent class analyses (LCA) were conducted on victimization by physical, verbal, social exclusion, spreading rumors, and cyber bullying.

Results: Three latent classes were identified, including an all-types victims class (9.7% of males and 6.2% of females), a verbal/relational victims class (28.1% of males and 35.1% of females), and a nonvictim class (62.2% of males and 58.7% of females). Males were more likely to be all-type victims. There was a graded relationship between the three latent classes and level of depression, frequency of medically attended injuries, and medicine use, especially among females.

Conclusions: Increased co-occurrence of victimization types put adolescents at greater risks for poorer physical and psychological outcomes.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Age Distribution
  • Bullying / psychology*
  • Cell Phone
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Health Status*
  • Humans
  • Internet
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Mental Health*
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Sex Distribution
  • Social Behavior
  • Students / psychology
  • United States
  • Violence