Development, theoretical framework, and lessons learned from implementation of a school-based influenza vaccination intervention

Health Promot Pract. 2010 May;11(3 Suppl):42S-52S. doi: 10.1177/1524839909360171.


The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recently recommended that all children 6 months to 18 years old be vaccinated annually against influenza. School-based influenza vaccination interventions may potentially increase influenza vaccination rates among hard-to-reach populations, particularly rural adolescents. This article describes the theoretical framework, intervention development, and lessons learned from 1st-year implementation of a multicomponent intervention aimed to promote influenza vaccine acceptance among multiethnic (predominantly African American) adolescents attending middle and high school in rural Georgia. Adolescents, parents, and school administrators were active participants in the development and implementation of the intervention. The educational intervention, which consisted of a brochure and a school skit/ presentation, was guided by constructs from the Health Belief Model and social norms. Process evaluation results indicated that our intervention development methods were successful in creating a low-cost, theory-based educational intervention that garnered community investment and met the cultural relevance and literacy needs of our target audience. To our knowledge, this study is the first to extensively engage middle- and high-school students and parents in the design and implementation of key educational components of a theory-based influenza vaccination intervention.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Georgia
  • Health Education / methods
  • Humans
  • Immunization Programs / organization & administration
  • Immunization Programs / statistics & numerical data*
  • Influenza Vaccines / administration & dosage*
  • Influenza, Human / prevention & control*
  • Models, Theoretical
  • Parents / education*
  • Patient Acceptance of Health Care
  • Program Development
  • Program Evaluation
  • Rural Population
  • Schools*
  • Students


  • Influenza Vaccines