Creation of a bacterial cell controlled by a chemically synthesized genome

Science. 2010 Jul 2;329(5987):52-6. doi: 10.1126/science.1190719. Epub 2010 May 20.


We report the design, synthesis, and assembly of the 1.08-mega-base pair Mycoplasma mycoides JCVI-syn1.0 genome starting from digitized genome sequence information and its transplantation into a M. capricolum recipient cell to create new M. mycoides cells that are controlled only by the synthetic chromosome. The only DNA in the cells is the designed synthetic DNA sequence, including "watermark" sequences and other designed gene deletions and polymorphisms, and mutations acquired during the building process. The new cells have expected phenotypic properties and are capable of continuous self-replication.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Bacterial Proteins / analysis
  • Base Sequence
  • Bioengineering*
  • Cloning, Molecular
  • DNA, Bacterial / chemical synthesis
  • DNA, Bacterial / genetics
  • Escherichia coli / genetics
  • Gene Deletion
  • Genes, Bacterial
  • Genetic Engineering*
  • Genome, Bacterial*
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Mycoplasma capricolum / genetics*
  • Mycoplasma mycoides / genetics*
  • Mycoplasma mycoides / growth & development
  • Mycoplasma mycoides / physiology
  • Mycoplasma mycoides / ultrastructure
  • Phenotype
  • Plasmids
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Polymorphism, Genetic
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / genetics
  • Transformation, Bacterial


  • Bacterial Proteins
  • DNA, Bacterial

Associated data

  • GENBANK/CP002027