Since the discovery of mutations in the WNK1 and WNK4 genes in pseudohypoaldosteronism type II (PHAII), the pathophysiological role of WNK kinases in hypertension and renal ion transport has been a hot topic for investigation. Analyses from a mouse model carrying the same mutation as seen in PHAII patients, reveal a new signal cascade in the kidney that regulates NaCl and K balance in the body. WNK kinases phosphorylate and activate oxidative stress responsive kinase 1 (OSR1) and STE20-like proline and alanine-rich kinase (SPAK), and OSR1 and SPAK phosphorylate and activate the thiazide-sensitive Na-Cl cotransporter (NCC). Furthermore, this cascade is regulated by aldosterone, indicating that WNK-OSR1/SPAK-NCC cooperates with this system including the epithelial Na channel (ENaC) to conserve NaCl. With regard to K excretion, however, both systems work in opposite directions whereby PHAII and Liddle syndrome show hyperkalemia and hypokalemia, respectively. Thus, the identification of such aldosterone effecters other than ENaC, will reveal a novel regulatory mechanism of K excretion in the distal nephron, and also provides basic evidence for the therapeutic use of thiazide in various clinical situations.