Prokaryotic genome regulation: multifactor promoters, multitarget regulators and hierarchic networks

FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2010 Sep;34(5):628-45. doi: 10.1111/j.1574-6976.2010.00227.x. Epub 2010 Apr 14.


The vast majority of experimental data have been accumulated on the transcription regulation of individual genes within a single model prokaryote, Escherichia coli, which form the well-established on-off switch model of transcription by DNA-binding regulatory proteins. After the development of modern high-throughput experimental systems such as microarray analysis of whole genome transcription and the Genomic SELEX search for the whole set of regulation targets by transcription factors, a number of E. coli promoters are now recognized to be under the control of multiple transcription factors, as in the case of eukaryotes. The number of regulation targets of a single transcription factor has also been found to be more than hitherto recognized, ranging up to hundreds of promoters, genes or operons for several global regulators. The multifactor promoters and the multitarget transcription factors can be assembled into complex networks of transcription regulation, forming hierarchical networks.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Energy Metabolism / genetics
  • Escherichia coli / genetics*
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial*
  • Gene Regulatory Networks*
  • Genome, Bacterial / genetics*
  • Nitrogen Fixation / genetics
  • Operon
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics*
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism*
  • Transcription, Genetic


  • Transcription Factors