Cardiovascular anomalies are present in 80% of neonates with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Three genes in chromosome 22q11.2 (TBX1, CRKL, and ERK2) have been identified whose haploinsufficiency causes dysfunction of the neural crest cell and anterior heart field and anomalies of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. The most common diseases are conotruncal anomalies, which include tetralogy of Fallot (TF), TF with pulmonary atresia, truncus arteriosus, and interrupted aortic arch. A high prevalence of the deletion is noted in patients with TF with absent pulmonary valve, TF associated with pulmonary atresia and major aortopulmonary collateral arteries, truncus arteriosus, and type B interruption of aortic arch. Right aortic arch, aberrant subclavian artery, cervical origin of the subclavian artery, crossing pulmonary arteries, and major aortopulmonary collateral arteries are frequently associated with cardiovascular anomalies associated with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Virtually every type of congenital heart defect has been described early in the context of a 22q11.2 deletion. In conclusion, conotruncal anomaly associated with aortic arch and ductus arteriosus anomalies should increase the suspicion of 22q11.2 deletion.
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