Objective: We reviewed our 11-year experience with a novel bypass procedure, superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) anastomosis and encephalo-duro-myo-arterio-pericranio-synangiosis (EDMAPS), for moyamoya disease regarding cerebral hemodynamics and long-term outcome.
Methods: This prospective study included 75 patients with moyamoya disease, including 28 children and 47 adults. We performed STA-MCA anastomosis and EDMAPS on 123 hemispheres of 75 patients. In addition to conventional STA-MCA anastomosis and indirect bypass for the MCA territory, the medial frontal lobe was revascularized using the frontal pericranial flap through medial frontal craniotomy. Surgical results were analyzed with magnetic resonance imaging, cerebral angiography, and single-photon emission computed tomography/positron emission tomography.
Results: Overall incidences of mortality and morbidity were 0% and 5.7%, respectively. The annual risk of cerebrovascular events during the follow-up periods was very low: 0% in pediatric patients and 0.4% in adults over approximately 67 months. Postoperative cerebral angiography showed that the pericranial flap functioned well as donor tissue for indirect bypass, especially in pediatric patients. Follow-up single-photon emission computed tomography/positron emission tomography studies revealed that cerebral blood flow and its reactivity to acetazolamide markedly improved in both the MCA and anterior cerebral artery territories.
Conclusion: These findings strongly suggest that STA-MCA anastomosis and EDMAPS using a frontal pericranial flap is a safe and effective surgical procedure to further improve the long-term prognosis in moyamoya disease by improving cerebral hemodynamics in both the MCA and anterior cerebral artery territories.