The present study examined the effect of GLP-1(1-37) on chemokine-induced CD4-positive lymphocyte migration as an early and critical step in atherogenesis. Pretreatment with GLP-1(1-37) reduced the SDF-induced migration of isolated human CD4-positive lymphocytes in a concentration-dependent manner. Similar effects were seen when RANTES was used as a chemokine. GLP-1(1-37)'s effect on CD4-positive lymphocyte migration was mediated through an early inhibition of chemokine-induced PI-3 kinase activity. Downstream, GLP-1(1-37) inhibited SDF-induced phosphorylation of MLC and cofilin and limited f-actin formation as well as ICAM3 translocation. Furthermore, exendin-4 inhibited SDF-induced migration of CD4-positive lymphocytes similarly to GLP-1(1-37), and transfection of these cells with GLP-1 receptor siRNA abolished GLP-1(1-37)'s action on chemokine-induced ICAM3 translocation, suggesting an effect mediated via the GLP-1 receptor. Thus, GLP-1(1-37) inhibits chemokine-induced CD4-positive lymphocyte migration by inhibition of the PI3-kinase pathway and via the GLP-1 receptor. This effect provides a potential novel mechanism for how GLP-1(1-37) may modulate vascular disease.