The evolutionary conserved family of heat shock proteins (HSP) is responsible for protecting cells against different types of stress, including oxidative stress. Although the levels of HSPs can be readily measured in blood serum, the levels of HSP70 in patients with different durations of diabetes have not been studied before. We quantified serum HSP70 levels in a healthy control group (n = 36) and two groups of type 2 diabetic patients, defined as newly diagnosed diabetes (n = 36) and patients with diabetes duration of more than 5 years (n = 37). The clinical characteristics and biochemical parameters were evaluated in the studied population. We found that serum HSP70 levels were significantly higher in patients with diabetes when compared with controls (p < 0.001) and it was higher in patients with disease for more than 5 years than in newly diagnosed patients (p < 0.001). Serum HSP70 was inversely correlated with fasting blood sugar in patients with diabetes for more than 5 years (r = -0.500, p = 0.002), positively correlated with the history of hypertension in newly diagnosed patients (p < 0.001), and positively correlated with age in patients with diabetes (r = 0.531, p = 0.001). Serum level of HSP70 is significantly higher in patients with diabetes and correlates with the duration of disease. Higher HSP70 in prolonged diabetes versus newly diagnosed diabetes may be an indicator of metabolic derangement in the course of diabetes.