A number of nutritional and managerial schemes have been presented to help optimize range livestock production. Forage quality, animal requirements, and the animals' ability to meet their requirements from the forage is presented. After determining the nutritional value of the forages and animal requirements, prescription supplementation produces very efficient additional gains. Management alternatives to compensate for poor quality forage on range in late summer and early fall, such as selling market animals, moving to better feed, chemical curing of forages, time of calving, time of weaning, and using the range as a feedlot are discussed. Winter feeding programs using native flood meadow hay as a base were also presented for both growing animals and mature cows. Included were discussions on using rake-bunched hay, an ionophore, and feeding strategies for wintering cows. Material presented illustrates a philosophy of range nutrition with methods and procedures that are adaptable to grazing systems in all parts of the world. It should be noted, however, some data need to be extrapolated to fit local conditions.