A critical factor in clinical development of cancer immunotherapies is the identification of tumor-associated antigens that may be related to immunotherapy potency. In this study, protein microarrays containing >8,000 human proteins were screened with serum from prostate cancer patients (N = 13) before and after treatment with a granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-secreting whole cell immunotherapy. Thirty-three proteins were identified that displayed significantly elevated (P <or= 0.05) signals in post-treatment samples, including three proteins that have previously been associated with prostate carcinogenesis, galectin-8, T-cell alternative reading frame protein (TARP) and TNF-receptor-associated protein 1 (TRAP1). Expanded analysis of antibody induction in metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients (N = 92) from two phase 1/2 trials of prostate cancer immunotherapy, G-9803 and G-0010, indicated a significant (P = 0.03) association of TARP antibody induction and median survival time (MST). Antibody induction to TARP was also significantly correlated (P = 0.036) with an increase in prostate-specific antigen doubling time (PSADT) in patients with a biochemical (PSA) recurrence following prostatectomy or radiation therapy (N = 19) from in a previous phase 1/2 trial of prostate cancer immunotherapy, G-9802. RNA and protein encoding TARP and TRAP1 was up-regulated in prostate cancer tissue compared to matched normal controls. These preliminary findings suggest that antibody induction to TARP may represent a possible biomarker for treatment response to GM-CSF secreting cellular immunotherapy in prostate cancer patients and demonstrates the utility of using protein microarrays for the high-throughput screening of patient-derived antibody responses.