Prevalence of genes for enterotoxins, toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 and exfoliative toxin among clinical isolates of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius from canine origin

Vet Dermatol. 2010 Oct;21(5):484-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3164.2009.00874.x. Epub 2010 May 24.


A total of 74 Staphylococcus pseudintermedius strains were isolated from the 99 clinical cases of canine pyoderma or chronic otitis in our veterinary teaching hospital during May 2006-February 2008. In this study, we examined the genetic distribution of staphylococcal pyogenic toxins such as staphylococcal enterotoxins A (sea), B (seb), C (sec), D (sed), E (see), and toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (tst) as well as the previously characterized S. intermedius exfoliative toxin (siet) among those isolates. The polymerase chain reaction analyses with the toxin gene-specific primers revealed that 18 (24.3%) of 74 S. pseudintermedius isolates carried the sec genes, but none of the sea, seb, sed, see and tst genes. Further DNA sequencing analysis of the amplified sec genes revealed that they all belonged to the canine type C staphylococcal enterotoxin (SEC(canine) ) whose superantigenic activity has been demonstrated. In addition to the sec(canine) genes, our polymerase chain reaction results showed that all the 74 isolates carried the siet gene. Since both SEC(canine) and SIET toxins are known to be biologically active, it would be interesting to investigate how those toxins are involved in the pathogenesis of the canine diseases by S. pseudintermedius such as pyoderma or chronic otitis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bacterial Toxins / genetics
  • Bacterial Toxins / metabolism*
  • Base Sequence
  • Dogs
  • Enterotoxins / genetics
  • Enterotoxins / metabolism*
  • Exfoliatins / genetics
  • Exfoliatins / metabolism*
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial / physiology
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Otitis / microbiology
  • Otitis / veterinary
  • Prevalence
  • Pyoderma / microbiology
  • Pyoderma / veterinary
  • Staphylococcal Skin Infections / microbiology
  • Staphylococcal Skin Infections / veterinary
  • Staphylococcus / genetics*
  • Staphylococcus / metabolism*
  • Superantigens / genetics
  • Superantigens / metabolism*


  • Bacterial Toxins
  • Enterotoxins
  • Exfoliatins
  • Superantigens
  • enterotoxin F, Staphylococcal