Cutaneous manifestations and serological findings in 260 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

Lupus. 2010 Sep;19(10):1187-94. doi: 10.1177/0961203310367656. Epub 2010 May 25.


The prevalence and prognostic value of cutaneous manifestations in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is not clear due to a lack of distinct criteria. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of cutaneous manifestations in SLE patients according to strict dermatological classification, compare the results with other studies and to assess differences in serological markers between patients with and without cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE). Secondary aims were to investigate the validity of the criteria 'malar rash' and 'photosensitivity' for SLE diagnosis. We included 260 consecutive SLE patients, and 164 with skin complaints were examined by a dermatologist. CLE was found in 23% of the 260 SLE patients. There was agreement on the presence of malar rash in only 60% of patients seen by both rheumatologists and dermatologists. A history of polymorphous light eruption (PLE) was found in 42% of patients. Raynaud's phenomenon was significantly more common in patients with CLE. In addition, four malignant melanomas were found. Based on our findings, we suggest that the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for SLE diagnosis include histopathologically confirmed CLE as one criterion, and that the criteria photosensitivity and malar rash should be re-defined. Regular examination by a dermatologist is called for in SLE patients.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Lupus Erythematosus, Cutaneous / diagnosis
  • Lupus Erythematosus, Cutaneous / epidemiology
  • Lupus Erythematosus, Cutaneous / physiopathology*
  • Lupus Erythematosus, Discoid / diagnosis
  • Lupus Erythematosus, Discoid / epidemiology
  • Lupus Erythematosus, Discoid / physiopathology*
  • Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic / diagnosis
  • Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic / epidemiology
  • Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic / physiopathology*
  • Male
  • Melanoma / diagnosis
  • Melanoma / pathology
  • Middle Aged
  • Photosensitivity Disorders / diagnosis
  • Photosensitivity Disorders / etiology
  • Prevalence
  • Prognosis
  • Raynaud Disease / diagnosis
  • Raynaud Disease / etiology
  • Skin / pathology
  • Young Adult