Bifidobacteria are aciduric bacteria that might play a role in the caries process. To test the hypothesis that Bifidobacteria behave as caries-associated organisms, as predicted by the ecological plaque hypothesis, we determined salivary levels of Bifidobacteria and caries-associated organisms for 156 older adults. Salivary levels of Bifidobacteria, mutans streptococci, lactobacilli, and yeasts were correlated with each other (p < 0.001), negatively correlated with salivary flow rate (p < 0.001), and positively correlated with plaque index (p < 0.05). Salivary Bifidobacteria levels were positively associated with the number of filled (p < 0.001) and decayed (p = 0.036) tooth surfaces and negatively associated with number of teeth (p < 0.001) and salivary flow rate (p = 0.049). In regression analyses, caries experience was significantly associated with only salivary Bifidobacteria (p < 0.001) and yeast (p < 0.001) levels and the individual's age (p = 0.021). Bifidobacteria should be regarded as caries-associated organisms whose role in the caries process and as markers of caries risk requires further investigation.