Control of macrophage activation and function by PPARs

Circ Res. 2010 May 28;106(10):1559-69. doi: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.110.216523.


Abstract: Macrophages, a key component of the innate defense against pathogens, participate in the initiation and resolution of inflammation, and in the maintenance of tissues. These diverse and at times antithetical functions of macrophages are executed via distinct activation states, ranging from classical to alternative to deactivation. Because the dysregulation of macrophage activation is pathogenically linked to various metabolic, inflammatory and immune disorders, regulatory proteins controlling macrophage activation have emerged as important new therapeutic targets. Here, the mechanisms by which peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) transcriptionally regulate macrophage activation in health and disease states, including obesity, insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease, are reviewed.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Apoptosis
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / physiopathology*
  • Cytokines / physiology
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Helminthiasis / physiopathology
  • Humans
  • Insulin Resistance / physiology
  • Interleukin-12 / metabolism
  • Interleukin-12 / physiology
  • Macrophage Activation / physiology
  • Macrophages / cytology
  • Macrophages / physiology*
  • Monocytes / cytology
  • Obesity / physiopathology
  • Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors / genetics
  • Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors / physiology*
  • Signal Transduction
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / physiology


  • Cytokines
  • Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • Interleukin-12