In the present paper we show for the first time that pregnenolone sulfate (Preg-S) impairs rats' memory for novel object recognition when injected in lateral septum (1.2 microM). The effect of Preg-S is clearly related to the moment the reagent is administered: if administered shortly after the training phase, or prior to the test phase of the experiment, there is no amnesic effect. It is only amnesic when administered 30 min before training. Accordingly, Preg-S does not appear to affect the storage of new memories or their retrieval but rather the acquisition itself. Based on the described afferences and efferences of lateral septum, we suggest a possible stimulatory effect of Preg-S regarding glutamate receptors and/or an inhibitory effect of GABA receptors located in local interneurons or recurrent axon collaterals, both of which have been reported to exist in the aforementioned nucleus.