Carnobacterium species constitute a genus of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) present in different ecological niches. The aim of this article is to summarize the knowledge about Carnobacterium maltaromaticum species at different microbiological levels such as taxonomy, isolation and identification, ecology, technological aspects and safety in dairy products. Works published during the last decade concerning C. maltaromaticum have shown that this non-starter LAB (NSLAB) could present major interests in dairy product technology. Four reasons can be mentioned: i) it can grow in milk during the ripening period with no competition with starter LAB, ii) this species synthesizes different flavouring compounds e.g., 3-methylbutanal, iii) it can inhibit the growth of foodborne pathogens as Listeria monocytogenes due to its ability to produce bacteriocins, iv) it has never been reported to be involved in human diseases as no cases of human infection have been directly linked to the consumption of dairy products containing this species.
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