Objectives: Preexposure prophylaxis (PREP) is an emerging HIV prevention strategy; however, many fear it may lead to neglect of traditional risk reduction practices through behavioral disinhibition or risk compensation.
Methods: Participants were 180 HIV-negative high-risk men who have sex with men recruited in New York City, who completed an Audio Computer Assisted Self Interview-administered survey between September 2007 and July 2009. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to predict intention to use PREP and perceptions that PREP would decrease condom use.
Results: Almost 70% (n = 124) of participants reported that they would be likely to use PREP if it were at least 80% effective in preventing HIV. Of those who would use PREP, over 35% reported that they would be likely to decrease condom use while on PREP. In multivariate analyses, arousal/pleasure barriers to condom use significantly predicted likelihood of PREP use (odds ratio = 1.71, P < 0.05) and risk perception motivations for condom use significantly predicted decreased condom use on PREP (odds ratio = 2.48, P < 0.05).
Discussion: These data provide support for both behavioral disinhibition and risk compensation models and underscore the importance of developing behavioral interventions to accompany any wide-scale provision of PREP to high-risk populations.