Smad anchor for receptor activation (SARA) in TGF-beta signaling

Front Biosci (Elite Ed). 2010 Jun 1;2:857-60. doi: 10.2741/e147.


Smad anchor for receptor activation (SARA) is known as Smad cofactor that interacts directly with Smad2/3 and functions to recruit Smad2/3 to the TGF-beta receptor. SARA plays an essential role in TGF-beta-induced Smad2 activation and it may modulate TGF-beta signaling through regulating the balance between Smad2 and Smad3. SARA also functions as an anchor for catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1c) and maybe involved in the dephosphorylation of TGF-beta type I receptor (TbetaR-I) mediated by Smad7. The expression of SARA changes as the development of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and fibrosis and it plays a critical role in the maintenance of epithelial cell phenotype. Modulation of SARA may provide a new therapeutic approach to TGF-beta-mediated EMT and fibrosis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Epithelial Cells / cytology
  • Humans
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism*
  • Mesoderm / cytology
  • Serine Endopeptidases / metabolism*
  • Signal Transduction*
  • Smad2 Protein / metabolism
  • Smad3 Protein / metabolism
  • Subcellular Fractions / metabolism
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta / metabolism*


  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Smad2 Protein
  • Smad3 Protein
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta
  • ZFYVE16 protein, human
  • Serine Endopeptidases