GMF is an evolutionarily developed Adf/cofilin-super family protein involved in the Arp2/3 complex-mediated organization of the actin cytoskeleton

Cytoskeleton (Hoboken). 2010 Jun;67(6):373-82. doi: 10.1002/cm.20451.


Actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin is widely expressed in eukaryotes and plays a central role in reorganizing the actin cytoskeleton by disassembling actin filaments. The ADF-homologous domain (ADF-H) is conserved in several other actin-modulating proteins such as twinfilin, Abp1/drebrin, and coactosin. Although these proteins interact with actin via ADF-H, their effects on actin are not identical to each other. Here, we report a novel ADF/cofilin-super family protein, Gmf1 (Glia maturation factor-like protein 1), from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Gmf1 is a component of actin patches, which are located on the cell cortex and required for endocytosis, and may be involved in the control of the disassembly of actin patches since its overexpression diminishes them. We provide evidence that Gmf1 binds weakly if at all to actin, but it associates with actin-related protein (Arp) 2/3 complex and suppresses its functions such as the promotion of actin polymerization and branching filaments. Importantly, Arp2/3 complex-suppressing activity is conserved among GMF-family proteins from other organisms. Given the functional plasticity of ADF-H, GMF-family proteins possibly have changed their target from conventional actin to Arps through molecular evolution.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Actin Depolymerizing Factors / metabolism*
  • Actin-Related Protein 2-3 Complex / metabolism*
  • Actins / metabolism*
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Conserved Sequence
  • Cytoskeleton / metabolism*
  • Destrin / metabolism*
  • Evolution, Molecular*
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Multigene Family
  • Nerve Growth Factors / chemistry
  • Nerve Growth Factors / metabolism*
  • Phylogeny
  • Protein Structure, Secondary
  • Rabbits
  • Schizosaccharomyces / metabolism
  • Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins / chemistry
  • Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins / metabolism*


  • Actin Depolymerizing Factors
  • Actin-Related Protein 2-3 Complex
  • Actins
  • Destrin
  • Gmf1 protein, S pombe
  • Nerve Growth Factors
  • Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins