Voxel-based morphometry is an automated technique for MRI analyses, developed to study differences in brain morphology and frequently used to study patients with diverse disorders. In epilepsy, it has been used to investigate areas with reduction or increase of gray and white matter, in different syndromes (i.e., temporal lobe epilepsy, focal cortical dysplasia and generalized epilepsies). In temporal lobe epilepsy, voxel-based morphometry showed gray/white matter atrophy extending beyond the atrophic hippocampus. These widespread abnormalities have been associated with seizure frequency, epilepsy duration, incidence of precipitating factors, cognitive dysfunction and surgical outcome. In generalized epilepsies, gray matter abnormalities were identified mainly in the thalamus and frontal cortex, reinforcing the role of the thalamocortical network in the mechanisms of generalized seizures.