Aim: Dapagliflozin is a stable, competitive, reversible, and highly selective inhibitor of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2, the major transporter responsible for renal glucose reabsorption. With an insulin-independent mechanism of action, dapagliflozin is currently being developed for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This work aims to compare the efficacy of dapagliflozin, as measured by the change in hemoglobin A1c concentration (A1c) and body weight, and to determine the pharmacodynamic effects of dapagliflozin, as measured by urinary glucose excretion in early-stage and late-stage T2DM patient populations.
Methods: A total of 151 early-stage patients and 58 late-stage patients with T2DM randomly assigned 10 or 20 mg once daily (QD) dapagliflozin treatment or placebo for 12 weeks from two phase 2 studies were included in the analysis. A1c, body weight, and urinary glucose were compared between the two patient populations.
Results: Compared with the early-stage population, patients in the late-stage population had a longer duration of T2DM and higher baseline levels of A1c, body weight, fasting plasma glucose, and urinary glucose excretion. After 12 weeks of dapagliflozin treatment, A1c reduction, weight loss, and increased urinary glucose excretion from baseline were observed in both populations. Baseline A1c level impacted the A1c reduction after dapagliflozin treatment with a comparable effect in patients with early and late stage disease. Late-stage patients had greater reduction in body weight. There was no statistically significant difference in the amount of urinary glucose excretion between the early-stage and late-stage patients.
Conclusions: Dapagliflozin treatment at 10 and 20 mg QD for 12 weeks resulted in significant improvement in glycaemic control and body weight reduction in both early-stage and late-stage patients with T2DM. The findings suggest that dapagliflozin could be a promising treatment option for a wide range of patients with T2DM.