Damage to cardiac contractile proteins during ischemia followed by reperfusion is mediated by reactive oxygen species such as peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)), resulting in impairment of cardiac systolic function. However, the pathophysiology of systolic dysfunction during ischemia only, before reperfusion, remains unclear. We suggest that increased ONOO(-) generation during ischemia leads to nitration/nitrosylation of myosin light chain 1 (MLC1) and its increased degradation by matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), which leads to impairment of cardiomyocyte contractility. We also postulate that inhibition of ONOO(-) action by use of a ONOO(-) scavenger results in improved recovery from ischemic injury. Isolated rat cardiomyocytes were subjected to 15 and 60 min. of simulated ischemia. Intact MLC1 levels, measured by 2D gel electrophoresis and immunoblot, were shown to decrease with increasing duration of ischemia, which correlated with increasing levels of nitrotyrosine and nitrite/nitrate. In vitro degradation of human recombinant MLC1 by MMP-2 increased after ONOO(-) exposure of MLC1 in a concentration-dependent manner. Mass spectrometry analysis of ischemic rat cardiomyocyte MLC1 showed nitration of tyrosines 78 and 190, as well as of corresponding tyrosines 73 and 185 within recombinant human cardiac MLC1 treated with ONOO(-). Recombinant human cardiac MLC1 was additionally nitrosylated at cysteine 67 and 76 corresponding to cysteine 81 of rat MLC1. Here we show that increased ONOO(-) production during ischemia induces MLC1 nitration/nitrosylation leading to its increased degradation by MMP-2. Inhibition of MLC1 nitration/nitrosylation during ischemia by the ONOO(-) scavenger FeTPPS (5,10,15,20-tetrakis-[4-sulfonatophenyl]-porphyrinato-iron[III]), or inhibition of MMP-2 activity with phenanthroline, provides an effective protection of cardiomyocyte contractility.
© 2011 The Authors Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine © 2011 Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.