Muscle protein breakdown (MPB) is increased following resistance exercise, but ingestion of carbohydrate during postexercise recovery can decrease MPB with no effect on muscle protein synthesis (MPS). We sought to determine whether a combination of essential amino acids (EAA) with low carbohydrate or high carbohydrate could effectively reduce MPB following resistance exercise and improve muscle protein net balance (NB). We hypothesized that higher levels of carbohydrate and resulting increases in circulating insulin would inhibit MPB and associated signaling, resulting in augmented NB. Thirteen male subjects were assigned to one of two groups receiving equivalent amounts of EAA (approximately 20 g) but differing carbohydrate levels (low = 30, high = 90 g). Groups ingested nutrients 1 h after an acute bout of leg resistance exercise. Leg phenylalanine kinetics (e.g., MPB, MPS, NB), signaling proteins, and mRNA expression were assessed on successive muscle biopsies using stable isotopic techniques, immunoblotting, and real-time quantitative PCR, respectively. MPB tended to decrease (P < 0.1) and MPS increased (P < 0.05) similarly in both groups following nutrient ingestion. No group differences were observed, but muscle ring finger 1 (MuRF1) protein content and MuRF1 mRNA expression increased following resistance exercise and remained elevated following nutrient ingestion, while autophagy marker (light-chain 3B-II) decreased after nutrient ingestion (P < 0.05). Forkhead box-O3a phosphorylation, total muscle atrophy F-box (MAFbx) protein, and MAFbx and caspase-3 mRNA expression were unchanged. We conclude that the enhanced muscle protein anabolic response detected when EAA+carbohydrate are ingested postresistance exercise is primarily due to an increase in MPS with minor changes in MPB, regardless of carbohydrate dose or circulating insulin level.