Lactobacillus paracasei DSMZ16671, even if heat-killed, sensitively co-aggregates mutans streptococci specifically. Mutans streptococci are strongly implicated in caries induction in humans and rodents. We hypothesized: (1) that S. mutans recoveries from rats' teeth in vivo will decrease, with an associated decrease in caries, if these lactobacilli are fed to rats in an established caries model; and (2) that toxicological assays of these lactobacilli will show them to be benign. Four groups of specific-pathogen-free rats were formed: S. mutans 10449S-inoculated/16671-supplemented diet; un-inoculated/16671-supplemented diet; S. mutans 10449S-inoculated/placebo diet; and un-inoculated/placebo diet. Standard tests of toxicity and mutagenicity of heat-killed DSMZ16671 were performed. S. mutans recoveries were significantly reduced both in mid-experiment and at termination, as were caries lesion scores for the rats inoculated by S. mutans and fed the DSMZ16671 supplement, by comparison with controls. Neither toxicity nor mutagenicity of DSMZ16671 was detected. Use of heat-killed DSMZ16671 is efficacious in rats and appears safe.