Identification of stage biomarkers for human African trypanosomiasis

Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010 Jun;82(6):983-90. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.2010.09-0770.


Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), caused by infection with sub-species of Trypanosoma brucei (T. b.), manifests as a hemolymphatic stage followed by an encephalitic stage. The distinction of the two stages needs improvement as drugs used for the late stage are highly toxic. Transcripts encoding 16 secreted proteins differentially expressed in the brains of mice at late stage T. b. brucei infection when the early stage drug suramin is no longer effective and different to immunoglobulins, chemokines, and cytokines, were selected by microarray analysis. Lipocalin 2 and secretory leukocyte peptidase inhibitor (SLPI) mRNA showed the highest differential expression in mice. These transcripts were also upregulated in brains from infected rats. Lipocalin 2 was increased in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from rats during late stage T. b. brucei infection. Protein levels of lipocalin 2, SLPI, and the chemokine CXCL10 were found increased in CSF from Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense late stage HAT compared to early stage.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biomarkers / cerebrospinal fluid
  • Biomarkers / metabolism
  • Chemokine CXCL10 / genetics
  • Chemokine CXCL10 / metabolism
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Humans
  • Lipocalins / genetics
  • Lipocalins / metabolism
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Secretory Leukocyte Peptidase Inhibitor / genetics
  • Secretory Leukocyte Peptidase Inhibitor / metabolism
  • Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms
  • Trypanosomiasis, African / blood
  • Trypanosomiasis, African / cerebrospinal fluid*
  • Trypanosomiasis, African / diagnosis*


  • Biomarkers
  • Chemokine CXCL10
  • Lipocalins
  • Secretory Leukocyte Peptidase Inhibitor