Niacin and exercise positively alter blood lipids and lipoproteins via different mechanisms. However, the effects of niacin combined with exercise on blood lipid and lipoprotein profiles have not been investigated in sedentary postmenopausal women. The current study examined the responses of blood lipids and lipoproteins to niacin and exercise in 18 sedentary postmenopausal women, who underwent four conditions: no-niacin rest, no-niacin exercise, niacin rest, and niacin exercise. Participants ingested 1,000 mg/day of extended-release niacin for 4 weeks during the niacin condition. As an exercise treatment, participants performed a single bout of exercise on a treadmill at 60% heart rate reserve until 400 kcal were expended. Extended-release niacin without the exercise intervention significantly (p < .001) increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein-2 cholesterol by 12.4% and 33.3%, respectively, and decreased the total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio by 14.8%. Thus, 4 weeks of 1,000 mg/day of extended-release niacin can improve the blood lipid and lipoprotein profiles in sedentary postmenopausal women.