The results of 8 to 12 weeks of treatment of the anemia of uremia with rHuEPO in patients with chronic renal failure and uremia are: a sustained increased hematocrit; increased RBC mass, and subsequent increased MAP; and increased TPRI. The observed trends of decreased LVEF, and echo Doppler evidence of a trend toward LV systolic and diastolic dysfunction, although not individually statistically significant, represent 3 separate evaluation techniques coupled with hypertension and TPRI increase during administration of rHuEPO to increase the hematocrit and packed red blood cell volume in patients with chronic renal failure and anemia. Increased TPRI and hypertension associated with correction of uremic anemia vasodilation and the increased blood viscosity have been noted in earlier investigations with transfusions. The hypertension and elevated TPRI demonstrated during rHuEPO therapy in patients with progressive chronic renal failure associated with increased hematocrit, and the trends toward systolic and diastolic cardiac dysfunction are noted herein. These changes were associated with the combined increase of packed RBC mass and plasma volume in this study. The natural progressive course of worsening of renal function exhibited by these patients could have limited their ability to regulate plasma volume, making them vulnerable to volume-dependent hypertension and a significant preload adding to potential cardiac dysfunction in addition to the increased TPRI.