This study evaluated a 20-yr experience in kidney transplantation in children from a predominantly Hispanic community. A retrospective analysis was carried out in children who received kidney transplants from 1985 to 2005. Of 124 kidney transplants, 81 (65%) were from LD. Racial distribution was Hispanic (48%), followed by AA (24%) and Caucasian (26%). First yr allograft survival was similar in LD and DD and significantly better in LD until seven yr post transplant. eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) at one yr post transplant was associated with a median allograft survival of 3.3 yr, compared to 16 yr in those with eGFR > or = 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (p < 0.0001). Graft loss in the first five yr was from non-adherence, recurrence of disease, and infections. Those of AA race were more likely to receive a DD and have low socioeconomic status and the poorest median allograft survival compared to Hispanics and Caucasians (6 vs. > or =15 yr; p < 0.001). In conclusion, this predominantly Hispanic cohort emphasizes the disadvantaged profile of AAs compared to other racial groups. Strategies to improve supportive services and living donations in minority populations need to be developed. Long-term renal allograft survival is achievable if GFR is maintained >60 mL/min/1.73 m(2).