This is the second article in a series of three studies that investigate the anatomical determinants of thalamocortical (TC) input to excitatory neurons in a cortical column of rat primary somatosensory cortex (S1). Here, we report the number and distribution of NeuN-positive neurons within the C2, D2, and D3 TC projection columns in P27 rat somatosensory barrel cortex based on an exhaustive identification of 89,834 somata in a 1.15 mm(3) volume of cortex. A single column contained 19,109 ± 444 neurons (17,560 ± 399 when normalized to a standard-size projection column). Neuron density differences along the vertical column axis delineated "cytoarchitectonic" layers. The resulting neuron numbers per layer in the average column were 63 ± 10 (L1), 2039 ± 524 (L2), 3735 ± 905 (L3), 4447 ± 439 (L4), 1737 ± 251 (L5A), 2235 ± 99 (L5B), 3786 ± 168 (L6A), and 1066 ± 170 (L6B). These data were then used to derive the layer-specific action potential (AP) output of a projection column. The estimates confirmed previous reports suggesting that the ensembles of spiny L4 and thick-tufted pyramidal neurons emit the major fraction of APs of a column. The number of APs evoked in a column by a sensory stimulus (principal whisker deflection) was estimated as 4441 within 100 ms post-stimulus.