Determinants of gestational diabetes mellitus: A case control study in a district tertiary care hospital in south India

Int J Diabetes Dev Ctries. 2010 Apr;30(2):91-6. doi: 10.4103/0973-3930.62599.


Objective: To study the determinants of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM).

Design: Case-control study.

Setting: Sri Avittom Thirunal Hospital, Thiruvananthapuram district, Kerala, South India.

Participants: 300 GDM women as cases and 300 age-matched controls.

Study variables: Sociodemographic characteristics, pre-pregnancy Body Mass Index (BMI), menstrual history, obstetric history, infertility history, family history of diabetes in first degree relatives, recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI), and moniliasis.

Statistical analysis: T-test, Fishers Exact Test, Chi square test, Adjusted Odds Ratio with 95% CI.

Results: Pre-pregnancy BMI >/= 25 (P < 0.001, OR = 2.7), irregular menstrual cycle (P = 0.006), treatment for infertility (P = 0.001, OR = 3.3), family history of diabetes (P = 0.001, OR = 4.5), history of diabetes in mother (P = 0.003), previous pregnancy losses (P = 0.04), past GDM (P = 0.035), prematurity (P = 0.01), pre-eclampsia (P = 0.04), polyhydramnios (P < 0.001, OR = 6.0), UTI (P < 0.001, OR = 3.2), and moniliasis (P < 0.001, OR = 7.6) were significantly associated with present GDM.

Conclusion: Early identification of women at risk of GDM and prompt treatment is recommended to prevent complications.

Keywords: Chi square test; Determinants; Gestational Diabetes Mellitus; Odds Ratio.