Thymosin beta4: structure, function, and biological properties supporting current and future clinical applications

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2010 Apr;1194:179-89. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2010.05492.x.


Published studies have described a number of physiological properties and cellular functions of thymosin beta4 (Tbeta4), the major G-actin-sequestering molecule in mammalian cells. Those activities include the promotion of cell migration, blood vessel formation, cell survival, stem cell differentiation, the modulation of cytokines, chemokines, and specific proteases, the upregulation of matrix molecules and gene expression, and the downregulation of a major nuclear transcription factor. Such properties have provided the scientific rationale for a number of ongoing and planned dermal, corneal, cardiac clinical trials evaluating the tissue protective, regenerative and repair potential of Tbeta4, and direction for future clinical applications in the treatment of diseases of the central nervous system, lung inflammatory disease, and sepsis. A special emphasis is placed on the development of Tbeta4 in the treatment of patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction in combination with percutaneous coronary intervention.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Actins / genetics
  • Actins / metabolism*
  • Actins / physiology
  • Animals
  • Cell Movement / genetics
  • Cell Movement / physiology*
  • Cell Nucleus / genetics
  • Cell Nucleus / metabolism
  • Cell Nucleus / physiology
  • Cell Survival / genetics
  • Cell Survival / physiology
  • Chemokines / genetics
  • Chemokines / metabolism
  • Chemokines / physiology
  • Down-Regulation
  • Heart / physiology
  • Humans
  • Mice
  • Thymosin* / chemistry
  • Thymosin* / metabolism
  • Thymosin* / physiology
  • Up-Regulation
  • Wound Healing / genetics
  • Wound Healing / physiology*


  • Actins
  • Chemokines
  • thymosin beta(4)
  • Thymosin