Galactose C3-triazole derivatives were synthesized by Cu(I)-catalyzed cycloaddition between acetylenes and galactose C3-azido derivatives. Evaluation against galectin-3, 7, 8N (N-terminal) and 9N (N-terminal) revealed 1,4-disubstituted triazoles to be high-affinity inhibitors of galectin-3 with selectivity over galectin-7, 8N, and 9N. Conformational analysis of 1,4-di- and 1,4,5-tri-substituted galactose C3-triazoles suggested that a triazole C5-substituent interfered sterically with the galectin proteins, which explained their poor affinities compared to the corresponding 1,4-disubstituted triazoles. Introduction of two 1,4-disubstituted triazole moieties onto thiodigalactoside resulted in affinities down to 29 nM for galectin-3.
Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.