Background: Long QT syndrome (LQTS) can be caused by mutations in the cardiac ion channels. Compound mutations occur at a frequency of 4% to 11% among genotyped LQTS cases.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics and manner of onset of cardiac events in Japanese patients with LQTS and compound mutations.
Methods: Six hundred three genotyped LQTS patients (310 probands and 293 family members) were divided into two groups: those with a single mutation (n = 568) and those with two mutations (n = 35). Clinical phenotypes were compared between the two groups.
Results: Of 310 genotyped probands, 26 (8.4%) had two mutations in the same or different LQTS-related genes (compound mutations). Among the 603 LQTS patients, compound mutation carriers had significantly longer QTc interval (510 ± 56 ms vs 478± 53 ms, P = .001) and younger age at onset of cardiac events (10 ± 8 years vs 18 ± 16 years, P = .043) than did single mutation carriers. The incidence rate of cardiac events before age 40 years and use of beta-blocker therapy among compound mutation carriers also were different than in single mutation carriers. Subgroup analysis showed more cardiac events in LQTS type 1 (LQT1) and type 2 (LQT2) compound mutations compared to single LQT1 and LQT2 mutations.
Conclusion: Compound mutation carriers are associated with a more severe phenotype than single mutation carriers.
Copyright © 2010 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.