The endotoxin of Bordetella pertussis was cleaved by mild acidic hydrolysis to yield a polysaccharide (polysaccharide I, 15%), a glycolipid (63%) and lipid X (2%). Further treatment of the glycolipid with stronger acid released a second polysaccharide (polysaccharide II, 9%) and material similar to lipid A present in enterobacterial endotoxins. Both polysaccharides possess a single molecule of 3-deoxy-2-octulosonic acid as the reducing, terminal sugar. In polysaccharide II the octulosonic acid is phosphorylated in position 5 and presumably substituted in position 4; in polysaccharide I the octulosonic acid is not phosphorylated, but is substituted in position 5. Following treatment of the endotoxin with strong base, a fragment was isolated that contained bound, non-phosphorylated 3-deoxy-2-octulosonic acid, glucosamine phosphate and fatty acids. This indicated that polysaccharide I, like polysaccharide II, was bound to the lipid region of the endotoxin. The endotoxin structure thus defined is different from that proposed for the lipopolysaccharides of enterobacteria.