Motion artifacts pose significant problems for the acquisition and analysis of high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging data. These artifacts can be particularly severe when studying pediatric populations, where greater patient movement reduces the ability to clearly view and reliably measure anatomy. In this study, we tested the effectiveness of a new prospective motion correction technique, called PROMO, as applied to making neuroanatomical measures in typically developing school-age children. This method attempts to address the problem of motion at its source by keeping the measurement coordinate system fixed with respect to the subject throughout image acquisition. The technique also performs automatic rescanning of images that were acquired during intervals of particularly severe motion. Unlike many previous techniques, this approach adjusts for both in-plane and through-plane movement, greatly reducing image artifacts without the need for additional equipment. Results show that the use of PROMO notably enhances subjective image quality, reduces errors in Freesurfer cortical surface reconstructions, and significantly improves the subcortical volumetric segmentation of brain structures. Further applications of PROMO for clinical and cognitive neuroscience are discussed.
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