Objectives: This study tested the hypothesis that early extracorporeal membrane oxygenator offered additional benefits in improving 30-day outcomes in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction complicated with profound cardiogenic shock undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention.
Methods: Between May 1993 and July 2002, 920 patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Of these patients, 12.5% (115) with cardiogenic shock were enrolled in this study (group 1). Between August 2002 and December 2009, 1650 patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Of these patients, 13.3% (219) complicated with cardiogenic shock were enrolled (group 2).
Results: The incidence of profound shock (defined as systolic blood pressure remaining < or =75 mm Hg after intra-aortic balloon pump and inotropic agent supports) was similar in both groups (21.7% vs. 21.0%, p > .5). Extracorporeal membrane oxygenator support, which was available only for patients in group 2, was performed in the catheterization room. The results demonstrated that final thrombolysis in myocardial infarction grade 3 flow in infarct-related artery was similar between the two groups (p = .678). However, total 30-day mortality and the mortality of patients with profound shock were lower in group 2 than in group 1 (all p < .04). Additionally, the hospital survival time was remarkably longer in patients in group 2 than in patients in group 1 (p = .0005). Furthermore, multivariate analysis demonstrated that unsuccessful reperfusion, presence of advanced congestive heart failure, profound shock, and age were independent predictors of 30-day mortality (all p < .02).
Conclusion: Early extracorporeal membrane oxygenator-assisted primary percutaneous coronary intervention improved 30-day outcomes in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction with complicated with profound cardiogenic shock.